Water Scarcity: Causes And Security Implications For Pakistan

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Farooq Ahmad ,Dr. Farmanullah


Pakistan is among the countries most vulnerable to water scarcity. This research paper explores the factors and implications of water scarcity on the national security of Pakistan using securitization theory. Specifically, it argues that water scarcity is a valid non-traditional security threat for Pakistan, which is already engulfed by persistent national and international water sharing disputes and politico-economic instability. The smaller provinces blamed the Punjab, the dominant province, for the water issues and they collectively opposed the construction of Kalabagh dam. The federation of Pakistan has been seriously threatened by interprovincial water disputes. The Indus River Basin, which Pakistan and India share, has become a key water-stressed area. Water scarcity and the Indain dam projects cause tensions between the two rival bordering states. The risk of water scarcity is growing and Pakistan's ability to guarantee water security is precarious. The paper explains how Pakistan's economy, society, federation, and environment are impacted by the country's water issue and the effects it has on collective national security and strength. This study employs a qualitative research approach based on secondary data sources as well as an examination (Discourse analysis) of important actors' security discourses, to provide a full picture of the problem.

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