Comparative Effects Of Cross Fiber Fascial Manipulation And Stretching Techniques On Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit In Overhead Throwing Athletes

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Aqsa Nawaz , Muhammad Asrar Yousaf , Hira Khalid , Warda Balouch , Farwa Asad , Sonia Gul



Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is usually managed by stretching and soft tissue release of posterior shoulder capsule. Fascial manipulation is a manual therapy technique used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders.


To Compare Effects of Cross Fiber Fascial Manipulation and Stretching Techniques on Glenohumeral Internal  Rotation  Deficit in Overhead Throwing  Athletes


This was a randomized clinical trial. 40 Participants of this study were randomly allocated. The group A received three sessions of fascial manipulation for two weeks. Group B received three sessions of sleeper stretch in a side lying position in 90˚ abduction, elbow at 90˚ flexion and then performed shoulder IR and cross-body adduction stretch in sitting position. Three sets of the each stretch positions were held for 30 seconds with a 1-minute break between sets.


Results showed that the mean age of group A was 24.10±2.826 and the mean age of group B was 26.35±6.200. Non-parametric tests were performed, and found that Cross fiber fascial manipulation and stretching techniques (sleeper stretch and cross body adduction stretch) were effective. There was no such significant difference in effectiveness of both groups however, stretching techniques were more pronounced in terms of pain reduction and enhancing range of motion of shoulder.


The study showed overall statistically significant results for cross fiber fascial manipulation and stretching techniques in improving pain, reducing disability in overhead throwing athletes with GIRD.

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