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This study examines the opportunities and challenges in promoting economic development in Afghanistan through a qualitative exploration, employing thematic analysis of reputable reports. The analysis delves into the intricate landscape of the country under the governance of the Taliban, uncovering the complexities of Afghanistan's economic context in the context of Taliban rule. The study highlights challenges such as a fragile economy, declining GDP, political instability, and aid cutoffs. Despite these challenges, the analysis identifies promising investment opportunities in infrastructure, energy, mining, agriculture, education, and healthcare sectors. Insecurity, internal disputes, repression, and uncertain foreign direct investment (FDI) policies significantly impact the investment climate. Effective risk assessment and stakeholder collaboration emerge as crucial factors for international investors to contribute to Afghanistan's economic stability and long-term development goals. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for policymakers, investors, and stakeholders navigating the economic landscape in Afghanistan.