Determinants Of Indo-Pak Wars: Analysing Through Prism Of Waltz Three Images Of War

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Dr. Aleem Gillani


The rivalry is the unfinished agenda of decolonisation. This research utilises Kenneth Waltz’s three images of war, i.e., individual, state, and systemic level, for analysing a detailed study of the major wars between India and Pakistan. Since their liberation from British rule, Indo-Pak relations have been fraught. Both countries have been at odds multiple times, causing South Asia to become unstable. The addition of nuclear weapons to the region has introduced a new aspect to the Indo-Pak conflict, escalating concerns of a potential nuclear confrontation that could destroy all civilisation. Actors in the two nations and foreign strategists have worked to identify the underlying roots of the conflict between these two arch-rivals. Few, however, have attempted to see the Indo-Pak conflict via Kenneth Waltz’s three images of war. This article examines numerous wars between India and Pakistan via Waltz’s lens, trying to pave the path ahead to avoid an all-out war between two tired neighbours. The article employs a qualitative research method. It conducts historical research to uncover events and links from the past that have ramifications up to the present day. Furthermore, the article attempts to deduce the causes of Indo-Pak wars from Waltz’s three images of war and forecast the likelihood of future conflict between India and Pakistan.

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