Health Disparities By Gender And Socioeconomic Status In Pakistan's Major Cities

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Sana Sultan , Dr. Ghulam Abbas , Sidra Farooq , Sajid Nawaz , Dr. Rubina Naz Qureshi , Shehla Gul


Social gaps in access to health care for women and children have been highlighted in recent research, investigations, and evaluations conducted in metropolitan Pakistan. Extensive surveys and profiles were conducted in urban slums. A current list of low-income areas and others was requested, as was information on vaccination rates and access to health care. These studies are utilized to better understand the impact of gender and socioeconomic status on health in urban slums. The Urban Slum Profiles employed quantitative and qualitative techniques. Three hundred surveys of urban ghettos and polls of immunization rates were conducted in Pakistan's five most populous cities. Health care access, women's workforce participation, gender-sensitive health services, education and literacy, social networks, and autonomy are the six factors considered. Too few clinics, female physicians, and high-quality buildings limit the health care options available to women and children in low-income areas. The findings indicate that there are not enough women who can read and make independent decisions, not enough individuals who are vaccinated and not enough people who have social connections outside of the house. These factors contribute to the maintenance of harmful ideas about women, a lack of health education, and restricted access to care. More women should be employed in the health sector, urban health action plans should include costs, and the political environment should be conducive to community organization and fair health service delivery; all of these can be introduced through the use of slum profiles and coverage studies.

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