Development Of Digital-Inclusive Learning (Dil) Theory For Special Education As A Result Of Desktop Analysis Of Special Education Policies And Legislative Covers In Pakistan: A Qualitative Probe

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Muhammad Ajmal Khan , Dr. Hina Fazil , Sidra Anser , Rameen Tahir , Muhammad Asif Faiz , Mussrat Perveen


The study is a qualitative probe to analyze special education policies and related legislative covers of Pakistan between 1972 and 2020 in order to jot down objectives of special education policies, identify lacunas in special education field, give recommendations for improving the status of special education, and finally develop a novel learning theory for special education. The study employed qualitative content analysis as a research tool. Participants of the study included human as well as non-human elements i.e. special education personnel and policy documents as well as legislative drafts related to special education. Sample of the study constituted 15 statutory drafts and 14 special education personnel from Sargodha division of Punjab. Researchers utilized Theoretical sampling technique. Triangulation was ensured for data collection using Focus Groups, Face-to-Face Unstructured Interviews and Document Reviews. Constant comparative method of analysis was employed to generate codes, categories and themes. The qualitative research at hand revealed education and rehabilitation of PWDs as key objectives, educational deficits, bad governance and conservatism as lacunas and increasing access and acceptance of PWDs as ways to improve status of special education in Pakistan. Researchers developed DIL-Theory (Digital Inclusion Learning Theory) for effective learning and teaching of CWDs using Grounded Theory as a result of desktop analysis of special education policies and legislative covers in Pakistan.

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