Toulmin Elements In Pakistani Students' Argumentative Writing: A Comparative Analysis

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Hira Khadim , Faiza Khadim Arain , Dr. Zahid Ali


In various academic and professional writing genres, argumentation skills are considered essential. Writing an argument is an integral part of academic writing and indicates the proficiency of a student's language skills. It is more complex than other language skills because writing skills measure one's ability to use language. It is essential that students develop argumentation skills to succeed in academics and their social lives, as these skills are manifestations of higher-order thinking and critical thinking. The present study aimed to investigate argumentation elements in essays written by Pakistani undergraduate students based on the Toulmin model (1958, 2003). The research adopted a quantitative approach. For the selection of essays, a total population sampling was used. The adapted tool for this study is comprised of six elements (claim, data, counterargument claim, counterargument data, rebuttal claim, and rebuttal data). The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The data used by the students was correctly cited, and the most frequent type of data was the daily practice in both sectors. The least frequent data type in the public sector were personal experience, laws for women's protection, quotations from scholars, constitutional articles, and laws for women's protection in the private sector. Results revealed that students in both private and public sector universities used all six Toulmin elements when writing argumentative essays. Several pedagogical implications can be drawn from the results of the study. This article stresses the importance of argumentative skills in writing to make students' writing logical and persuasive.

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