Prioritizing Epistemology and Morality for Sustainable Societal Peace in Pakistan: An Integrated Approach to Religious and General Education

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Muhammad Makki


This paper examines the role of Madaris in Pakistan's educational system and their alleged connection to radicalization and extremism due to a lack of emphasis on critical thinking, morality, and exclusive religious epistemological sources. In contrast to the prevalent simplifications attributing their function to Madaris, this paper argues that the conventional general education system has also failed to prioritise morality and inclusive epistemology in its curricula. Therefore, it is essential to adopt a more nuanced approach to the analysis of the education system, and it is argued that a comprehensive approach that acknowledges both inclusive epistemology and morality is required for an environment conducive to the maintenance of sustainable societal harmony. The paper argues that by employing such an approach, students can appreciate diversity and diverse perspectives, develop critical thinking skills, and be better equipped to promote social cohesion and peace.

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