Workplace Bullying, Internalized Covid-19 Stigma And Self-Esteem: Does Islamic Work Ethic Curtail The Relationship? A Moderated-Mediation Analysis

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Dr. Khalid Rehman , Dr. Farhat Ullah Khan , Dr Shumaila Hashim , Dr. Ahmad Ali , Dr. Adnan Khan , Muhammad Asad Ullah


The study investigates the relationship between workplace bullying and self-esteem among healthcare employees who tested positive for COVID-19, with Internalized Covid-19 Stigma as a mediating variable. Additionally, we explored the moderating effect of Islamic Work Ethic on this mediated relationship. Our sample comprised 366 healthcare workers, including Medical Officers (n=85), Nurses (n=155), and Paramedics (n=126), all of whom were employed in COVID-19 wards at tertiary healthcare centers in Punjab, Pakistan. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the relevant variables, and the results showed that workplace bullying had a negative impact on the self-esteem of COVID-19-positive employees (r=-0.482**), indicating that those who experienced more bullying reported lower self-esteem. Our findings also revealed that Islamic Work Ethic moderated the relationship between workplace bullying and self-esteem through Covid-19 Internalized Stigma (Index=0.1104, 95% CI= [0.0602/0.1683]). We discuss the implications of our study and suggest future research directions.

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