A Study Of Instructional Leadership Of School Heads Regarding Annual School Goals: A Cross-Cultural Study

Main Article Content

Asif Iqbal, Dr. Malik Amer Atta, Dr. Bushra Salahuddin, Sultan Akbar Shah


This study investigated the instructional leadership of school heads for annual school goals, focusing on two key influences: school location (rural or urban) and the head's gender. Examining their role as leaders at the core of the educational system in Pakistan, the research aimed to determine the extent of their involvement as instructional leaders within these contexts. Utilizing a quantitative approach and survey design, the study included public secondary school heads, teachers, and district education officers across Bhakkar and Mianwali districts in Punjab. Through a multi-stage stratified sampling technique, the research explored the engagement of 150 heads (including rural and urban females/males) and 400 teachers (female/male in both localities), along with four district education officers (two male and two female). Using a validated questionnaire on a 5-point Likert scale, the study collected data and analyzed it via descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) for perception of involvement. Inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were then employed to compare engagement across the chosen factors. There were 150 heads (Rural Females=49, Urban Females=08) & (Rural Males=80, Urban Males=13), 400 Teachers (Rural Females=116, Urban Females=117) & (Rural Males=234, Urban Males=33) and 4 DEOs (Male=2 & Female=2). The data was collected through a questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert Scale with 62 items. The data was analyzed through SPSS version 25 using descriptive statistics (Frequency and percentage) for perception regarding involvement and inferential statistics (t-test) and ANOVA for comparison.  The results show that female heads were more instructional leaders than male heads and urban school heads were more instructional leaders than rural heads.

Article Details