A Qualitative Inquiry Of Intra And Extra Familial Influences On Substance Abuse Among Male Adolescents

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Dr. Wahida Anjum, Dr. Shazia Habib Dr. Sajid Iqbal Alyana, Dr. Saeed Ahmad Watto, Nimra Munawar, Dr Sarfraz Mahmood


The current study unfolded the intra and extra-familial influences on substance abuse among adolescents admitted to the private rehabilitation centers of Lahore, Pakistan. A qualitative research design, inductive reasoning methods, and thematic analysis were used to interpret the data of N = 20 participants. Their age ranges varied from 13-19 years, having 8-10 grades of education, and they were admitted with multiple relapses. A demographic information sheet and in-depth semi-structured interviews were scheduled to collect the data. Results of the thematic analysis showed that participants used substances in schools out of curiosity, peer pressure, media celebrities, inter-parental conflict, intergenerational family violence, and inter-generational substance use disorder. Lack of parental supervision due to the dysfunctional family system, role reversal, easy availability of substances, and physical, emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse by the Madrasa and school teachers compelled them to use substances as fun and stress reduction mode. The quantity of substance use increased in exams and after physical, emotional, psychological, and sexual abuse. They used substances individually and in groups and manipulated their parents for extra money, theft, and borrowing. They suffered from psychological, physical, emotional, social, interpersonal, spiritual, and economic issues. A holistic approach is required to minimize the risk factors for substance abuse among male adolescents. The study's implications and limitations will be discussed in the cultural context of Pakistan.

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