National Integration: Missing Component Of The Curriculum Of Higher Secondary Education In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Muhammad Nisar , Dr. Hamida Bibi


Globalization has jeopardized national cohesiveness and unity in developing countries. The necessity for national integration is exacerbated by ethnic, cultural, and linguistic diversities. This places national integration teaching at the school level as a key option for dealing with this overall concern. The purpose of this research was to investigate national integration in Pakistan Studies Curriculum at the Higher Secondary School Level in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study used a qualitative research strategy with an interpretive approach, in which Content Analysis (CA) was used to examine the Pakistan Studies Textbook at higher secondary school level. To achieve data triangulation, semi-structured interview with teachers and textbook writers was conducted to record expert opinion. The research concluded that, despite the widespread usage of Islam, the adoption of Urdu as a language of instruction, and the inclusion of the Indus and Gandhara Civilizations in textbooks, racial and ethnic diversity has adversely affected national cohesion and integration. The study identified absence of quality and up-to-date literature to socialize and educate Pakistan's young generation toward unity and loyalty to the country. The study recommends to review and revise the current curriculum and textbooks and to improve quality through addition of up-dated literature in textbooks to teach national integration.             

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